Contrary to genomic DNA, mt DNA has several unique features: it consists of a single circular molecule, it follows almost exclusively maternal inheritance, and its replication occurs independently of the cell cycle.
Sequencing of 686 bp of CYTB and 202 bp of the D-loop in 260 mares revealed 24 and 32 haplotypes, respectively, among 31 mare families.
BLAST analysis revealed six novel CYTB and four D-loop haplotypes that have not been previously reported.
The Gidran is a native Hungarian horse breed that has approached extinction several times.
Phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial markers (D-loop and cytochrome-b) was performed to determine the genetic characterization of the Gidran for the first time as well as to detect errors in the management of the Gidran stud book.
Retrenching the number of mare families was a key moment in this preservation, which took into account that each mare family has more than twenty generations of breeding history (Jónás et al., 2006).
As a consequence, the final number of mare families was determined, and the latest version of the official Gidran stud book was published in 2005 (Mihók, 2005).
The Gidran mares showed high haplotype (CYTB: 0.8735 ± 0.011; D-loop: 0.9136 ± 0.008) and moderate nucleotide (CYTB: 0.00472 ± 0.00017; D-loop: 0.02091 ± 0.00068) diversity.
Of the 31 Gidran mare families, only 15 CYTB (48.4%) and 17 D-loop (54.8%) distinct haplotypes were formed using the two markers separately.
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